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  - Stress Analysis
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FINITE ELEMENT CALCULATION
The Finite Element Modeling method is used to model mechanical response to various conditions, including force, moment, pressure, vibration, temperature, radiation, heat flux, EMF, and deflection. Highly complex pipe system elements with a variety of materials, including composites, can be modeled in detail and analyzed for a combination of applied loads. Steady state and transient solutions are readily obtained. The results can show the stresses, temperatures, heat transfer, deflections, and other responses. Temperature distributions or thermal flux due to conduction, convection, or radiation are all routinely modeled.
For example, a pressure vessel in critical service could be modeled in start up, steady state, and upset conditions, showing the areas of high stress and temperature and indicating whether it will exceed the material’s abilities.
Parametric and optimization routines can speed model changes and increasing efficiency. This technique can be used during the design phase, be modeled "as built" to determine reliability, or as part of a failure analysis. As with any form of mathematical modeling, solid engineering judgment and experience must be used to ensure accurate results. Otherwise, while the model may converge and yield very convincing color plots, the results can easily be disastrously wrong.
Finite element results are commonly followed by structural analyses to determine displacements or stresses due to thermal effects.
Engineers always face uncertainties in design, whether it is in the prediction of future loads, variability of material properties, or uncertainties in predicting system response under load. For aging structures, stochastic mechanics provides the means to quantify the safety of the structure. For new design, stochastic mechanics provides the means to explicitly treat uncertainties to achieve truly optimal design. Stochastic methods provide the engineer with a way to quantify uncertainties and treat all problem uncertainties consistently. The traditional approach of using arbitrary design safety factors does not provide a means to quantify the design reliability and can sometimes lead to unbalanced designs wherein some components are over designed and some may be actually be under designed.
We perform Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to determine the stresses, strains, structural integrity, and fatigue life of piping components. FEA can be used to optimize the mechanical design, increase safety margins, reduce weight, control vibrations, and extend component life. FEA is used to evaluate:
Fatigue, Fracture, Buckling, and Code Compliance
Design Requirements
Fabrication Process Evaluation
Thermal Cycling
Creep Response & Ratcheting
Seismic & Vibration
Shock & Impact
Flow-Induced Vibrations
Water Hammer
Fluid Flow Analyses
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